What Is Renal Transplant?
A Renal Transplant, also called a kidney transplant, is a surgery done to replace a diseased kidney from Renal transplant procedure with a healthy functioning kidney from a donor. The kidney may be taken from a living donor or a deceased organ donor. One of the kidneys from donors (Family members or others) is taken and placed in the lower right or left side of the abdomen of the recipient. Kidney donors can lead a healthy life with one healthy kidney.
Types of Renal Transplants:
1)Living-donor Renal Transplant:
A kidney is removed from a living donor and placed into the body of a recipient who has renal failure..
2)Deceased-donor Renal Transplant:
It is when a kidney from someone who has recently died is removed with the family's consent and placed into a recipient whose kidneys have failed.
What Happens When Kidneys Fail?
Harmful waste builds up in the body, which leads to
- High blood pressure
- Fluid build-up (edema)
- Salts and acids in the blood getting out of balance
- Decreased red blood cells
- Weak bones
All of these can be harmful, even deadly, to the heart, brain and skeleton.
There are many signs of kidney failure, such as:
- Swelling of the hands, feet, and face (edema)
- Headaches (due to high blood pressure)
- Pale skin colour (due to low haemoglobin)
- Coffee coloured urine
- Chronic bad breath that cannot be freshened by brushing your teeth
- Itchy skin
Causes For Renal Failure:
Renal Transplant is one of the two types of treatment for kidney failure (dialysis is the other). Getting a Renal Transplant implies having a healthy kidney set inside the body to perform the roles of the native non-functioning kidneys. When kidneys lose their ability to filter, harmful levels of fluid and waste build up in the body, raising blood pressure and leading to kidney failure (end-stage renal disease). The end-stage renal disease occurs when the kidneys have lost about 90% of their ability to function normally.
End-stage renal disease is frequently caused by:
- Chronic, uncontrolled high blood pressure
- Chronic glomerulonephritis
- Polycystic kidney disease
End-stage renal disease patients require either dialysis or a Kidney Transplant In Hyderabad to keep them alive by removing waste from their bloodstream.
Contraindications to Renal (Kidney) Transplant:
For certain individuals with kidney failure, kidney transplant might be more serious than dialysis.
Ineligible cases include:
- Untreatable heart disease
- Bacterial or viral infections, until treated
- Drug addiction
- Recent history of cancer
- Mental illnesses
- A patient who has recovered from cancer
- Infections, such as hepatitis
A kidney transplant is often the treatment of choice for renal failure treatment, compared with a lifetime on dialysis. You can feel improved and live longer with a kidney transplant procedure if you have an end-stage renal illness or chronic kidney disease.
Compared with dialysis, kidney transplant is associated with:
- Better quality of life
- Lower risk of death
- Fewer dietary restrictions
- Lower treatment cost
Some people may also benefit from receiving a kidney transplant before needing to go on dialysis, a procedure known as preemptive kidney transplant.
Before The Procedure:
Diagnosis And Evaluation For Renal Transplant Treatment?
If your Renal Transplant Doctor suspects you have Kidney Failure disese, they suggest various tests based on the cause of your Kidney failure for Renal Failure Treatment in Hyderabad.
- Blood tests
- Chest X-ray
- Cancer screening
- Gynaecological examination (Women)
- Prostate exam(Men)
- Dental evaluation
What Are The Requirements For A Matching Kidney?
When determining whether a donor kidney will be a good match for you, your transplant team will consider many factors.
Tests for determining whether a donated kidney may be suitable for you include:
It is preferable to receive a kidney transplant from a donor whose blood type matches or is compatible with your own.
If your blood type is compatible, the next step is a tissue typing test known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. This test compares the degree of genetic match between donor and recipient and also establishes the relationship between the donor and the recipient. A good match means less likely that your body will reject the organ.
In the third and final matching test, a small sample of your blood is mixed with the donor's blood in the lab. The test determines whether your blood antibodies will react to specific antigens in the donor's blood.
Additional factors your transplant team may consider when selecting the best donor kidney for you include matching age, kidney size, and infection exposure.
Renal Transplant Treatment Procedure
People receiving a renal transplant procedure are given general anaesthesia before surgery. The transplant surgeon makes an incision in the lower belly area and places the new kidney inside your body. The artery and vein of the new kidney are connected to the artery and vein in your pelvis. The new kidney generates urine as your original healthy kidneys did when your blood runs through them. The tube that carries urine (ureter) is then attached to your bladder. Unless they are causing a medical problem, your kidneys are left in place. Then the wound is then closed.
An average kidney transplant procedure lasts three hours. A pancreas transplant may potentially be performed simultaneously for diabetic patients. This procedure can add another 3 hours to the surgery.
After The Procedure
After the Renal transplant surgery in Hyderabad, you must stay in the hospital for between 7to 10days if you had a kidney transplant for one to two months. You will require frequent blood tests and constant doctor monitoring.
The recovery process takes roughly six months. For the first three months, you may be asked to stay close to the hospital by your transplant team. You will need to have regular check-ups with blood tests for many years.
Benefits of a successful renal transplant:
- Patients who receive kidney transplants typically live longer and have greater quality of life.
- No longer need dialysis
- High energy levels
- It's simpler to manage travel and work.
- Fewer diet restrictions
- Improved sex life and increased fertility
The following are specific risks connected to this procedure:
- Blood clot (deep venous thrombosis)
- Heart Attack or stroke
- Wound infections
- Loss of transplanted kidney
- Side effects from medicines used to prevent transplant rejection
Instructions after Kidney Transplant:
Maintain regular check-ups and follow-ups.
- Drugs should be taken for life-long to help prevent the immune system
- Quit Smoking
- Maintain regular physical activity
- Avoid contact with people with contagious diseases
- Side effects from medicines used to prevent transplant rejection
- Wash hands regularly
- Consult the doctor when you feel any pain in the transplanted kidney orStop urinating.
What Is A Kidney Transplant?
A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure that involves the placement of a healthy kidney from either a living or deceased donor in your lower abdomen. It is not a cure but a treatment for chronic kidney failure. It is the treatment of choice for those considering suitable candidates for a transplant.
How Does Transplantation Compare To Dialysis Treatment?
There are numerous advantages to transplantation. It can treat kidney failure, improve your health, and allow you to live free of dialysis. After receiving a "new" kidney, you should have fewer fluid and dietary restrictions. Most people are even able to return to work. To get your new kidney to work, you must take medications every day, exactly as instructed, for as long as the kidney is functional and possibly for the rest of your life.
These medications can have negative side effects. Complications such as rejection of your new kidney or infection are possible.
How Is Kidney Transplant Procedure Performed?
The kidney transplant procedure involves 3 main stages:
- - First, an incision (cut) is made in your lower abdomen (tummy), through which the donated kidney is put into place. Your own kidneys will usually be left where they are unless they're causing problems such as pain or infection.
- - Second, nearby blood vessels are attached to the blood vessels of the donated kidney, and This is to provide the donated kidney with the blood supply it needs to function properly.
- - Finally, the ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) of the donated kidney is connected to your bladder.
After kidney surgery, you should be able to return to work and normal activities within a few months, provided you make good progress.
What Is ABO Incompatible Kidney Transplant?
ABO-incompatible kidney transplant is done when we don't have a blood group-compatible kidney donor, so we reduce the immunity of the recipient by using immunosuppressants so that the body does not reject the new kidney. It was not possible Earlier, but now with advancement in medication and a shortage of organ donation, ABO-incompatible transplant is being done successfully. With this procedure, the patient receives a kidney from a willing and healthy living donor with a different blood type. Transplant candidates for ABO Incompatible Renal Transplant in Hyderabad must have end-stage renal failure and an acceptable baseline blood group antibody titer.
The potential kidney transplant recipient undergoes a form of “desensitisation” procedure (a combination of medications and plasmapheresis treatments) before the transplant to lower blood group antibodies and reduce the possibility of rejection due to blood group incompatibility.
This treatment includes:
- Removing antibodies from your blood (plasmapheresis)
- Injecting antibodies into your body that protects you from infections (intravenous immunoglobulin)
- Prevent the formation of new antibodies by using immunosuppressants (Rituximab)
Providing other medications that protect your new kidney from antibodiesThe current data implies that there is no significant difference in short-term and long-term patient or graft survival outcomes as compared with ABO-compatible renal transplant In Hyderabad.
Combined Kidney And Pancreas Transplantation:
A combined kidney and pancreas transplant is a procedure in which a person with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receives a new kidney and a new pancreas at the same time. The procedure is performed to restore kidney and pancreas function, which may be destroyed by diseases such as diabetes or other conditions.
The kidney is responsible for filtering waste products from the bloodstream and balances the body’s fluid and electrolyte levels. The pancreas produces hormones that help regulate the body’s metabolism and help control blood sugar levels. When both organs are damaged, the patient is unable to effectively filter waste and balance electrolytes and cannot produce the hormones necessary to process glucose.
The combined kidney and pancreas transplant is an open surgery, meaning that an incision is made to access the organs. The new kidney and pancreas are then placed into the abdomen. The donor organ is connected to the recipient’s blood vessels and urinary tract. The patient will then receive immunosuppressant medications for life to help prevent the body from rejecting the new organs.
The combined kidney and pancreas transplant is a highly complex surgery, and the patient will need lifelong medical care.
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Frequently Asked Questions
The average lifespan is 15 to 20 years for a kidney removed from a living donor and 10 to 15 years from a deceased donor.
While most kidney transplant recipients are between the ages of 45 and 65, there really is no upper age limit. However, to ensure the best results, your healthcare provider will likely look for a donor who is close to your own age.
Overall, transplant success rates are very good. Transplants from deceased donors have an 90to 95% success rate for the first year. That means that after one year, 90 to 95 out of every 100 transplanted kidneys are still functioning. Live donor transplants have a 95 to 100% success rate.